Active or self-motions

12 February 2019, blog Zuzulen

They generally require a lot of effort and cause the more exhaustion the longer they continue. Therefore, they are not suitable for the tender youth, not even for the elderly and the weak, especially not for the sick. The self-movements are divided into one-sided and one-sided. 

The former are quite useful for the attainment of some purposes, but they constitute only one-sided muscular force, and one must therefore see in their application a proper alternation of these movements.

Promoting physical activity 

Promoting movement for an active everyday life - For an active everyday life

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Bringing exercise into everyday life as a matter of course: This is the goal of the movement promotion centers set up in the federal states.On the common internet portal of the centers for physical activity promotion you will find an overview of the activities in the centers and their federal states.

Practical examples, materials, work aids and documentation on physical activity promotion can be searched in the database of the website in a targeted manner and across age groups. Do you even offer projects or materials for more exercise in everyday life? 

Then we would be happy if you publish them on the website.
The Physical Activity Centers are part of the activities of the National Health Associations or of bodies that perform this function in the countries.


Movement, passive or active spatial or positional change of organisms, cell structures, cells or organs. As passive movements one designates the location or position changes, which take place without own achievements of the organisms under utilization of environmental energies, z. B. locomotion with wind or water power. 

Active movements are understood to be all changes of position or location which are made by the organism itself or its parts under the expenditure of energy. These include: movements within cells, movements of the cells themselves, movements of organelles and organs as well as movements of individuals. The molecular basis of all active forms of movement is the energy-consuming interaction of so-called contractile proteins, which works according to the sliding-filament mechanism. 

The molecular and cellular structure of the contractile proteins, their arrangement, functioning, regulation and control within the animal kingdom show the most varied training. 

Functionally, the individual types of movement are subdivided into:

intracellular movements, amoeboid movements, cilia and scourge movements, and muscle movements. 

Examples of intracellular motions include the microtubules of the spindle apparatus mediated chromosome movements in cell division and the plasma transport within the cells, which is usually in the context of amoeboid movement processes (amoeboid movement) take place. 

Amoeboid movements can be found in many unicellular organisms (amoebae, root-footed, sun-born animals), but also in different metazoan cells (eg, amoebocytes, phagocytes, leukocytes). In the direction of movement of the cell cytoplasmic extensions (pseudopodia) are formed, which may be designed flap-like or thread-like and are divided accordingly into Lobopodien, axopodia and filopodia. 

The mechanism of pseudopodia formation is due to the interaction processes of contractile fiber proteins in the ectoplasm (primarily actin and myosin, actomyosin), which contribute to the formation of a lead border and to intracellular plasma transport. Flagella and cilia are the locomotory organs of many protozoa (flagellates, ciliates) and metazoans (flatworms, various larval stages). 

Arranged to ciliated epithelia, they serve the nests of food particles or respiratory water as well as the mass transfer in internal void systems (intestine, kidney tubules, kidney). The two organelles differ only in length and function, but not in their submicroscopic fine structure (axonema). 

Both consist of two axial fibrils, which are surrounded in a cylindrical arrangement of peripheral double fibrils and originate from a common basal body. The predominantly individually occurring flagella can perform the most varied rudder or screw movements in a mostly three-dimensional oscillation space and thereby generate tensile or thrust movements. 

Cilia are usually arranged in ciliar fields or ciliated epithelia. They are coordinated and always in one level. In most metazoans, movements are accomplished through the work of muscle cells (muscles, muscles) that have developed a special, specialized form of contraction (muscle contraction). The contractile basic units here are actin and myosin, whose function is mediated and regulated by additional proteins (actin-binding proteins). 

Elements of different muscle types are either mononuclear muscle cells or multinucleated muscle fibers that result from the embryonic fusion of individual cells. The more or less regular arrangement of individual muscle cells and fibers is called smooth muscle. This type consists of the intestinal muscles of the vertebrates and the shell-sphincters of the molluscs. 

Strictly parallel structuring of muscle fibers, recognizable in the microscopic picture by the alternating sequence of single- and double-refractive zones, is called striated musculature. There are no differences between the two forms in the fine-structure construction and in the mode of operation. However, due to the special arrangement of the muscles in the blueprint of an organism, the most varied types of movement are possible, with the individual muscle fibers working either against each other or against other structures. 

The first case is in flat muscle skin muscle tubing, in the muscles of hollow organs (intestines, arteries, heart, stomach) and in organs of muscle parenchyma (tongue of vertebrates, foot of molluscs). In the second case, the musculature is in antagonistic interaction with a skeleton. In the simplest case, this is a fluid column, the hydroskelet, as in the case of the tubeworms and annelids. The arthropods have an exoskeleton (exoskeleton), consisting of sclerites, which are interconnected by flexible skins.

Автор: Zuzulen

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